sur in French

Sur in French

Sur in French,...

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Do you know all these words: sur in French,...?

SUR and SOUS

These 2 words sur et sous are prepositions.
A preposition is used to introduce a word or a group of words.

Elle est sur le canapé.
She is on the sofa.

Le chat est sous la table.
The cat is under the table.

DESSUS and DESSOUS

These 2 words dessus and dessous are adverbs.
They can be the last word of the sentence. It’s not a mandatory to add some words after them.

SUR and DESSUS

Le chat est sur le mur
The cat is on the wall
SUR

The word sur is used to locate someone or something in the space.
It’s used to mark a top position.
It’s important to keep in mind that there is no space between the support and the designated person-animal or object.

Le chien est sur le mur.
The dog is on the wall.

DESSUS

The word dessus is the adverb that correpsonds to the preposition sur.

We do not say: Le chien est dessus le mur.

Le chien est dessus.
The dog is on top of it.

The words dessus and dessous can also be used as a nouns.
 
Je vais nettoyer le dessus du garage.
I'll clean the top of the garage.
 
Je vais examiner le dessus et le dessous du tapis.
I will examine the top and bottom of the carpet.

SOUS and DESSOUS

Le chien est sous la table
The dog is under the table
SOUS

The word sous is used to locate someone or something in the space.
It’s used to mark a lower position.
It’s important to keep in mind that there is a space between the support and the designated person-animal or object.

Le chien est sous la table.
The dog is under the table.

On a trouvé une épave sous la mer.
We’ve found a wreck under the sea.

DESSOUS

The word dessous is the adverb that correpsonds to the preposition sous.

Le chien est dessous.
The dog is underneath.

We do not say: Le chien est dessous la table.

The words dessus and dessous can also be used as a nouns.
 
Je vais nettoyer le dessus du garage.
I'll clean the top of the garage.
 
Je vais examiner le dessus et le dessous du tapis.
I will examine the top and bottom of the carpet.

Au-dessus de and En-dessous de

Au-dessus de = preposition
Au-dessus = adverb

Au-dessus de

The preposition au-dessus de means at a higher position.

  • It could  be related to space, in that case there is some space between the support and the designated person-animal or object.

Ex : L’avion vole au-dessus de l’eau.
The plane flies over the water.

  • It could not be related to space, but to a position in the hierarchy.

Ex : Dans la hiérachie militaire le général est au-dessus des soldats.
In the military hierarchy the general is above the soldiers.

Ex : En montagne j’ai été au-dessus des 3000 mètres.
In the mountains I’ve been above 3000 meters.

Ex : Il pense qu’il est le meilleur, il se croit au-dessus de tout le monde.
He thinks he is the best, he thinks he is above everyone else.

Au-dessus
  • It could  be related to space, in that case there is some space between the support and the designated person-animal or object.

Ex : L’avion vole au-dessus.
The plane flies overhead.

  • It could not be related to space, but to a position in the hierarchy.

Ex : Dans la hiérachie militaire le général est au-dessus.
In the military hierarchy the general is above.

Ex : Il pense qu’il est le meilleur, il se croit toujours au-dessus.
He thinks he is the best, he thinks he is always above.

En-dessous de

Signez en-dessous du dernier paragraphe, s’il-vous-plaît.
Please, sign below the last paragraph.

You can say as well: Signez sous le dernier paragraphe, because there is no contact between the last paragraph and the signature.

En-dessous

Signez en-dessous, s’il-vous-plaît.
Please, sign below.

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Do you have any questions?
Thomas, your French teacher 😀 

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